Department of Education records
Scope and Contents
The records of the Department of Education range in date from 1967 to 1971 and consist entirely of those kept by Julian Stanley, Professor of Psychology. The types of records include Chairman's memoranda to faculty and graduate students, faculty correspondence with the chairman, a weekly newsletter Inform, departmental meetings minutes and various proposals. The documents within each folder are arranged in chronological order and the folders are arranged alphabetically.
- Creation: 1967-1971
- Johns Hopkins University. Department of Education (Organization)
Administrative records in this record group are restricted for twenty-five years from their date of creation. For details, see Regulations Governing Access to Restricted Records, at the front of each binder.
In the early years of the University, there were few courses offered in the field of education. From 1881 to 1888, G. Stanley Hall taught pedagogy in the Faculty of Philosophy, and there were also some special courses designed for teachers not enrolled as regular students in the University. There was, however, no formal program or degree in education. In 1908, the Department of Philosophy and Psychology was expanded to become the Department of Philosophy, Psychology and Education, and the University called Dr. Edward F. Buchner to devise a specific plan for meeting the needs of teachers. As Professor of Education and Philosophy, he sought to establish closer connections between the work of the University and the educational system of the city and state.
The Department of Education separated from the joint Department of Philosophy, Psychology and Education in 1915, and Dr. Buchner was given the title Professor of Education. Dr. Buchner not only directed the Department of Education within the Faculty of Philosophy but was also instrumental in founding, in 1909, the College Courses for Teachers, a part-time degree program designed for those already engaged in the teaching profession. To distinguish between those who had completed undergraduate studies in the (full-time) Faculty of Philosophy (who were awarded the Bachelor of Arts degree) and graduates of the College for Teachers, the Bachelor of Science degree was created and first awarded in 1916.
Initially, all undergraduate work in education was conducted under the auspices of the College Courses for Teachers, while graduate work was administered by the Department of Education in the Faculty of Philosophy. In 1915, however, graduate courses in education were first offered to summer session students, sixty-five of whom participated. This advanced work led to the degree of Master of Arts. Later, beginning academic year 1935-1936, it became possible for full-time undergraduate day students in the College of Arts and Sciences to major in education and take a bachelor of arts degree in that field. Thus, education became a field of study for both graduate and undergraduate students in both the full-time and part-time programs.
In 1915, Florence E. Bamberger was appointed Instructor in Elementary Education. Through the joint efforts of Dr. Buchner and Miss Bamberger, college courses were first given to students outside of Baltimore in the year 1917-1918 through University extension centers. The program was in great demand and was successful in its goal but proved to be a severe strain upon the professors and was dissolved ten years later. The year 1918 marked another innovation: the appearance of The Johns Hopkins University Studies in Education, authorized as a means of disseminating important studies in the field of education, undertaken at Johns Hopkins and other universities.
Although there was a well-received demonstration school during the summer session, the education faculty did not succeed in creating at Homewood a similar year-round school offering experimental elementary and secondary education. Instead, beginning in 1928, students majoring in education practice-taught in five area high schools, four public and one private.
In 1924, Dr. Bamberger (who had received her Ph.D. at Columbia University in 1922) took over direction of the Department as Executive Secretary. Dr. Buchner left the school in December 1926 due to prolonged illness and Dr. Bamberger was immediately appointed Director of the department.
On April 8, 1929, the Trustees created the School of Higher Studies in Education and named Dr. Bamberger Director. Prior to 1929, the only advanced degrees offered were the Doctor of Philosophy and Master of Arts. With the creation of the School of Higher Studies in Education, two new degrees were established, Master of Education and Doctor of Education. The school was designed to meet the growing demand of public and private schools for administrative and supervisory officers trained in technical and modern scientific education.
On June 6, 1938, however, the Trustees decided to accept the unanimous recommendation of the Academic Council that the School of Higher Studies in Education be abolished. The full-time program in education once again became a department in the Faculty of Philosophy, with part-time programs offered through the College for Teachers. The Master of Education and Doctor of Education degrees continued to be available but for "those students in the Department of Education who are not able to conform to the residence requirements of the other degrees."
Yet programs and course offerings in education remained strong and even expanded. In 1942, several new majors were offered including Nursing Education. Through the cooperation of the School of Nursing at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and the College for Teachers, graduate nurses were now able to receive instruction in methods of nursing education and supervising of nurses.
Dr. Bamberger, after 31 years of service, retired on August 31, 1947, and Dr. John B. Whitelaw became Professor of Education and Chairman of the Department of Education. Under Whitelaw's chairmanship, the basic policy of the Department was totally re-formulated and re-defined. The full-time undergraduate major in Education leading to the Bachelor of Arts in the College of Arts and Sciences was discontinued. The Executive Committee of the School of Higher Studies was established in 1947-1948, to oversee all graduate studies done at the University, including Education. Progress during the year was also made in establishing the General Seminar in Education as the basic course for all graduate studies in Education.
On February 8, 1951, Whitelaw resigned as Chairman of the Department of Education, desiring to return to government service, and Dr. Francis H. Horn was appointed acting Chairman. During the summer Dr. Horn accepted the position of Executive Secretary of the Department of Higher Education of the National Education Association, and Dr. John M. Stephens, who held joint appointments in education and psychology, assumed the Chairmanship on October 15, 1951. He instituted changes in the program to emphasize the historical, philosophical, and psychological foundations of Education. In accordance with these changes the Department no longer awarded the degree of Doctor of Education.
In 1952, administration of the Master of Education degree was given over to McCoy College, which had become the administrative umbrella for all part-time programs, including the College for Teachers. The part-time program was extended the following year by the establishment of a Certificate of Advanced Study in Education to be awarded upon the satisfactory completion of the equivalent of one year of work beyond the Master of Education.
In 1957, John Walton became Chairman of the Department of Education. In April of that same year, the Fund for the Advancement of Education, Inc., made a grant of $275,000 to the Department for the purpose of providing a fifth year of training for liberal arts college graduates who wanted to become secondary school teachers. Upon completion of this fifth year, the Master of Arts in Teaching was awarded.
Timothy Smith succeeded Dr. Walton as Chairman in 1968. In May of 1970, after one year of internal dissension, the Academic Council decided to abolish the Department of Education. The core of the conflict existed between Chairman Timothy Smith and other department members over the conduct of departmental affairs. Smith was charged with acting unilaterally without consulting other members of the department on important matters such as priorities on new faculty appointments. He resigned later in that month after a petition was circulated among the graduate students stating an overwhelming attitude of "no confidence." Walton and Smith were designated professors-at-large, while Dr. Kingsley Price became a professor in the Philosophy Department and Dr. Julian Stanley was named Professor of Psychology.
0.57 Cubic Feet (1 letter size document box, 1 letter half-size document box)
Language of Materials
These records were transferred to the Archives by Dr. Julian Stanley, Professor of Psychology.
Finding aid prepared by Craig Passmore.
- Department of Education records
- Language of description
- Script of description
- Language of description note
- Finding aid written in English
Part of the Special Collections Repository
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